archetypal criticism in othello
Aristotles second requirement for a tragedy is that the tragic hero must have a reversal of fortune. This causes him to lose his ability to make good judgments and decisions. Archetypal school of literary criticism is a type of literary criticism that is concerned with recurring myths and archetypes in symbols, characters, actions, and situations within literary pieces. Issues of genre, period, and language were ignored or subjected to gross generalization as Jung searched for universals in texts as disparate as the fourth-century Shepherd of Hermas, the Divine Comedy, Francesco Colonnas Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (1499), E. T. A. Hoffmans tales, Pierre Benoits LAtlantide (1919-20), and Henry Wadsworth Longfellows Hiawatha, as well as works by Carl Spitteler and William Blake. And it is thought abroad that twixt my sheets Hes done my office. In-text citation: Her Jungian Approach to Literature attempts to cover the Finnish epic The Kalevala, the Persian Atars The Conference of the Birds, and texts by Euripides, Wolfram von Eschenbach, Michel de Montaigne, Pierre Corneille, Goethe, Novalis, Rabbi ben Simhah Nachman, and W. B. Yeats. This allows our team to focus on improving the library and adding new essays. They were built to defen the city of Nicosia during the Otto-man Venetian war. Not with vain thanks, but with acceptance bounteous, He seems to breathe an atmosphere as fateful as that of King Lear, but more confined and oppressive, the darkness not of night but of a close-shut murderous room. Literary Theory from 1900 to 1966: A-Z A Alexander Chirila First published: 24 December 2010 https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444337839.wbelctv1a009 Read the full text PDF Tools Share Abstract Archetypal criticism is a form of analysis based on the identification and study of recurring symbolic and mythic patterns. Shakespeare derived his plot from Giraldi Cinthios Tale of the Moor, in the story collection Hecatommithi (1565), reshaping Cinthios sensational tale of jealousy, intrigue, and murder in several key ways. Dramatically, Shakespeare turns the focus of the play from the shocking crime to its causes and psychic significance, trans-forming Cinthios intrigue story of vile murder into one of the greatest dramatic meditations on the nature of love and its destruction. Kibin, 2023. http://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/an-archetype-criticism-of-othello-a-play-by-william-shakespeare-yJF4zltX. However, for Othello this is not the case. Given this background, it is not surprising to find in a 1976 essay entitled Jungian Psychology in Criticism: Theoretical Problems the statement that no purely Jungian criticism of literature has yet appeared (Baird 22). However, Othello's words give a deeper insight into how he still misunderstands the situation. This type of criticism was first experimented by Maud Bodkin, in his book Archetypal Patterns in Poetry (1934). Wow! Marxist criticism would also have offered a distinctive way of looking at Othello. New theoretical approaches appear to legitimize orthodox Jungian ways of reading, sanction Jungs range of literary preferences from She to Faust, and support his highly affective reaction to Ulysses, which he himself identified (positively) as a subjective confession (i5:io9n). Othello as a character of noble blood seems to conform to all these. His expression of his jealousy quickly devolves from the conventional"Farewell the tranquil mind"to the absurd: Farewell the plum'd troops and the big wars. He is the general of the Venetian army and a well respected man by the towns noble men. Joseph P. Strelka, 1976); Karin Barnaby and Pellegrino DAcerino, eds., C. G. Jung and the Humanities: Toward a Hermeneutics of Culture (1990); Martin Bickman, The Unsounded Centre: Jungian Studies in American Romanticism (1980); Maud Bodkin, Archetypal Patterns in Poetry: Psychological Studies in Imagination (1934); Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (1957); Albert Gelpi, The Tenth Muse: The Psyche of the American Poet (1975); Naomi Goldenberg, Archetypal Theory after Jung, Spring (1975); Julia Kristeva, Stabat Mater (1977, The Kristeva Reader, ed. The tragedy of Othello, written by William Shakespeare, presents the main character Othello, as a respectable, honorable, and dignified man, but because of his insecurities and good nature, he is easily taken advantage of and manipulated by his peers and alleged friends. Despite his deliberately selective focus on critical works written in English on literary texts that are, for the most part, also written in English, van Meurs, with the early assistance of John Kidd, has collected 902 entries, of which he identifies slightly over 80 as valid and valuable literary criticism. Thus archetype is recognized as the tendency to form and reform images in relation to certain kinds of repeated experience, which may vary in individual cultures, authors, and readers (Lauter and Rupprecht 13-14). How to respect you; you are the lord of duty; Othello, unlike the other Shakespearean comedies, adds three more acts to the romantic drama, shifting from comic affirmation to tragic negation. While adding to the tone of the story it also adds to the characters overall personality from the reader's perspective. The story opens on Briony Tallis, a 13-year-old growing up in the upper-middle class in England in 1953 with . As Iago asserts to Roderigo, Virtue? 2. archetypal criticism in othelloboone county wv obituaries. (2.1.191-93) Setting the scene. To protect the anonymity of contributors, we've removed their names and personal information from the essays. : In this quote, Othello is stating that his wife's supposed infidelity has ruined his name and turned it "black" and dirty like his own face, showing that a woman's fidelity was linked to a man's honor. This preview is partially blurred. A few names form a core of writers in English (including many Canadians)Martin Bickman, Albert Gelpi, Elliott Gose, Evelyn Hinz, Henry Murray, Barton L. St. Armand, Harold Schechter, and William Stein though no single figure has attracted the attention of academic literary specialists, and no persistent commonalities fuse into a recognizable school critics who draw on Jungs theories. Archetypal criticism focuses on such things in a work. Bettina Knapps 1984 effort at an authoritative demonstration of archetypal literary criticism exemplified this pattern. Such characters can be found in works of fiction, long or short, and in more poetic works. Iago reviews Othellos performance as a lover by stating, O, you are well tuned now, / But Ill set down the pegs that make this music. Iago will now orchestrate discord and disharmony based on a life philosophy totally opposed to the ennobling and selfless concept of love demonstrated by the newlyweds. Patterns originate from the writer's . This does not stop her, though, from continuing to care for Othello. Human emotions have a lot of power over how we react to situations in life, the trick is learning how to not let them take over. The three fundamental qualities of an archetype are: An archetype is a preconscious, instinctual expression of man's basic nature. Othello falls in love with Desdemona and they secretly marry; later, he leaves to Cyprus to stop the Turks. Olympus-high, and duck again as low In his major work, The Anatomy of Criticism, he states: 'I mean by an archetype a symbol which connects one poem with another and thereby helps to unify and integrate our . : 2022625 : archetypal criticism in othello In Othello, the themes such as love and jealousy reflects on the characters motivation and their values. The play moves relentlessly from here to catastrophe as Othello delivers justice to those he is convinced have wronged him. Indeed, myth criticism seems singularly unaffected by any of the archetypal theorists who have remained faithful to the origins and traditions of depth, especially analytical, psychologyJames Hillman, Henri Corbin, Gilbert Durand, Rafael Lopez-Pedraza, Evangelos Christou. The concept of the archetype is a venerable philosophical principle that came into new prominence and usage in the twentieth century with the development of archetypal literary criticism through the theories of psychologist C. G. Jung and literary theorist Northrop Frye. My soul hath content so absolute 125-126). Shakespeare's play, Othello, the Moor of Venice, is a powerful example of a tragedy and its main character, Othello, is an excellent illustration of what Aristotle constitutes as a tragic hero. Home Drama Criticism Analysis of William Shakespeares Othello, By NASRULLAH MAMBROL on July 25, 2020 ( 0 ). Having triumphantly bested the social and natural forces aligned against them, having staked all to the devotion of the other, Desdemona and Othello will not be left to live happily ever after, and the tragedy will grow out of the conditions that made the comedy. Key quotation (Aside) O, you are well tuned now!But I'll set down the pegs that make this music, As honest as I am. Other forms previously labeled Jungian are here subsumed under the term archetypal because whatever their immediate specific focus, these forms operate on a set of assumptions derived from Jung and accept the depth-psychological structure posited by Jung. The critical annotations are astute and, given their brevity, surprisingly thorough and suggestive. A tragic hero has many characteristics, 3 of them being that they must have an error in judgement, they must have a reversal of fortune, and they must recognize that the reversal of fortune was brought about by their own actions. However, in William Shakespeare's Othello, Emilia's character portrays three completely different archetypes and they all come through in strategical places. Spring: A Journal of Archetype and Culture, Spring: An Annual of Archetypal Psychology and Jungian Thought, The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion, Analysis of Stuart Halls Encoding/Decoding, Jacques Derrida's Structure, Sign and Play. What is a tragic hero and why is Othello considered one? By speaking of soul as a primary metaphor, rather than defining soul substantively and attempting to derive its ontological status from empirical demonstration or theological (metaphysical) argument, archetypal psychology recognizes that psychic reality is inextricably involved with rhetoric (Hillman, Archetypal 19). Archetypal criticism, then, construed as that derived from Jungs theory and practice of archetypal (analytical) psychology, is a fledgling and much misconstrued field of inquiry with significant but still unrealized potential for the study of literature and of aesthetics in general. The concept of the archetype is a venerable philosophical principle that came into new prominence and usage in the twentieth century with the development of archetypal literary criticism . According to Hillman, that discourse was anticipated by Evangelos Christous Logos of the Soul (1963) and extended in religion (David L. Millers New Polytheism, 1974), philosophy (Edward Caseys Imagining: A Phenomenological Study, 1976), mythology (Rafael Lopez-Pedrazas Hermes and His Children, 1977), psycholinguistics (Paul Kuglers Alchemy of Discourse: An Archetypal Approach to Language, 1982), and the theory of analysis (Patricia Berrys Echos Subtle Body, 1982). Othello: Damn her, lewd minx! And the 1980s saw a new, suggestive, and controversial direction in archetypal studies of literature: the feminist. O my souls joy, But Wheelwright, for example, barely mentions Jung (The Burning Fountain, 1954), and he, Fergusson, and others often owe more to Sigmund Freud, Ernest Jones, Oedipus Rex, and the Oedipus complex than to anything taken from Jung. After Othello learns of a possible affair between Cassio and Desdemona, at this instance is the turning point in Othellos fortune because it changes his views, attitudes and ultimately his fate. Shakespeare on the other hand has portrayed women as both object and subject. He suffers barbs and preconceived notions, yet Othello is esteemed and wins the love of the daughter of a nobleman. The first systematic application of Jungs ideas to literature was made in 1934 by Maud Bodkin in Archetypal Patterns in Poetry: An attempt is here made to bring psychological analysis and reflection to bear upon the imaginative experience communicated by great poetry, and to examine those forms or patterns in which the universal forces of our nature there find objectification (vii). As the story unfolds Othellos character evolves in an extremely tragic way as Iago manipulates him and leaves him to rot in his misery. Archetypal Criticism Volume I. The scene crowns love triumphant. If we carefully examine the third scene in the third act, we can see how Othello fits into Aristotle's definition of tragic hero. Between William Shakespeares most expansive and philosophical tragediesHamlet and King Learis Othello, his most constricted and heart-breaking play. He interprets literature in the light of various rituals and myths. If after every tempest come such calms, (And nope, we don't source our examples from our editing service! Othello decides the only way to right his wrong is to take his own life. Othello is a train wreck that the audience horrifyingly witnesses, helpless to prevent or look away. Archetypal theory then took shape principally in the multidisciplinary journal refounded by Hillman in 1970 in Zurich, Spring: An Annual of Archetypal Psychology and Jungian Thought. The first two acts of the play enact the standard pattern of Shakespeares romantic comedies. 364-367). while we are reading any of [Shakespeare's] great criminal characters - we think not so much of the crimes which they commit, as of the ambition, the aspiring spirit, the intellectual activity which prompts them to . . : Feminist: Ex. At the center of the plays intrigue is Shakespeares most sinister and formidable conceptions of evil in Iago, whose motives and the wellspring of his villainy continue to haunt audiences and critics alike. Desdemona is oblivious to what is going on around her and stays loyal to her morals but Iagos rumours lure Othello to thinking otherwise. Of one that loved not wisely but too well, Let him command, And to obey shall be in me remorse, Using an archetypal literary criticism, Harry Potter can be analyzed by focusing on different archetypes, such as, symbols, images, and character types in the text. These patterns include persistent images, figures, and story patterns shared by people across diverse cultures. From the theorists, dissertations, articles, and books, often traditionally academic in orientation, appeared; the productions of the practitioners are chronicled and critiqued in van Meurss bibliography. Othello is first shown as a hero of war and a man of, The extent of which Othello is a tragic hero has been open to much debate; the basis on which he is judged falls to Aristotles established view of the crucial elements that distinguish whether a person is truly tragic. Jungs Psychology of the Unconscious (1916, B. M. Hinkles translation of the 1911-12 Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido) appeared in English one year after publication of the concluding volume with bibliography of the third edition of J. G. Frazers The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (2 vols., 1890,3d ed., 12 vols., 1911-15). Ignoring her appeals for mercy and avowals of innocence, Othello smothers her moments before Emilia arrives with the proof of Desdemonas innocence and Iagos villainy. Hillman also discovers archetypal precursors in Neoplatonism, Heraclitus, Plotinus, Proclus, Marsilio Ficino, and Giambattista Vico. So much I challenge that I may profess What hooks you? Farewell / Commend me to my kind lord. Aristotles theory is not the final word on tragedy, however it can support in pinpointing the pivotal traits in. Active Themes Emilia returns with Desdemona. No products in the cart. Their discourse is conducted in poetic language; that is, their notions of soul-making come from the Romantics, especially William Blake and John Keats. That such a man should unravel so completely, ushered by jealousy and hatred into a bestial worldview that cancels any claims of human virtue and self-less devotion, shocks and horrifies. During the play Iago manipulates Othello because Lieutenant Cassio was promoted ahead of him, and also because he suspects that Othello has had an affair with his wife. His destruction is essentially precipitated by his own actions, as well as by the actions of the characters surrounding him. For the fair devil. But Jung's theory of the archetypes of the collective unconscious differs . Othello is now reduced to questioning his wife's maid, Emilia, looking for evidence of Desdemona's infidelity. No more of that. In her final moments, Desdemona chooses not to blame Othello for her death because she saw that the honor of their love was more important than honesty. The tragedy of Othello is not a fault of a single villain, but is rather a consequence of a wide range of feelings, judgments and misjudgments, and attempts for personal justification exhibited by all of the participants. Considered according to this definition, the concept becomes a useful tool for literary analysis that explores the synthesis of the universal and the particular, seeks to define the parameters of social construction of gender, and attempts to construct theories of language, of the imaginal, and of meaning that take gender into account. However, the protagonist of the tragedy play only partially meets the definition of Aristotles tragic hero. Misled by the handkerchief, his love token to Desdemona, that Iago has planted in Cassios room and by a partially overheard conversation between Iago and Cassio, Othello, by the end of act 3, forsakes his wife and engages himself in a perverse version of the marriage ceremony of act 2 to Iago. Rashness: The play is replete with rash decisions. "Othello is essentially an noble character, flawed by insecurity and a nature that is naive and unsophisticated". Unfortunately, this got the ball rolling for Othello's inevitable downfall. Othello is characterized by his plainspoken read analysis of Othello Iago Othello's disloyal standard-bearer and the villain of the play. She is not as strong-willed like the other ladies and is Shakespeares example of the archetype of the innocence and has the bases of a flat character. That not another comfort like to this Archetypal criticism gets its impetus from psychologist Carl Jung, who postulated that humankind has a "collective unconscious," a kind of universal psyche, which is manifested in dreams and myths and which harbors themes . For Cassirer, reason alone cannot lead to truth, but mythical thinking which focuses on immediate experience is essential. In his "The . Othello is the most painfully exciting and the most terrible. And concomitantly, on which of these levels was the reader affected? A Modern View of Feminist Criticism William Shakespeare 's "Othello" can be analyzed from a feminist perspective.This criticism focuses on relationships between genders, like the patterns of thoughts, behavior, values, enfranchisement, and power in relations between and within sexes. ("Literary Criticism.") "Othello", by William Shakespeare, is a story of jealousy's potential to manipulate thoughts and eventually lead to ultimate demise. Farewell! Reading example essays works the same way! To wronged Othellos service. His imagination is excited to intense activity, but it is the activity of concentration rather than dilation. An archetypal critic would suggest that all human experience is linked through literature and that this experience is expressed again and again using the same patterns throughout time and space. While acknowledging the grave weaknesses of much Jungian writing on literature as unsubtle and rigid application of preconceived psychological notions and schemes resulting in particularly ill-judged or distorted readings, van Meurs still finds that sensitively, flexibly and cautiously used, Jungian psychological theory may stimulate illuminating literary interpretations (14-15). OTHELLO: My name, that was as fresh. This heuristic distinction was formed, however, solely on psychobiographical grounds: Did the text originate in, and remain principally shaped by, the authors experience of consciousness and the personal unconscious or his or her experience at the level of the archetypal collective unconscious? His works range from ingenious poems, such as Fear No More, to plays, such as The Tragedy of Othello. O, farewell! (5. And will upon the instant put thee tot. The movie Zootopia uses animals to portray racism and sexism; predators do not like prey and vice versa. In Cinthios story, Alfiero, the scheming ensign, lusts after the Moors wife, named Disdemona, and after she spurns his advances, Alfiero seeks vengeance by accusing her of adultery with Cassio, the Moors lieutenant.